Among the several threats that exist to the world’s environment, waste management is one of the global hazards we face today. Since waste is inevitably produced each day of our lives from several sources, if not managed properly would lead to accumulations at an alarming rate. The concern is even more as mankind continues to populate with his species on the face of the earth constraining every possible form of resource. The alarming increase in population is proportionately related to alarming increases in wastes. This unceasing phenomenon of waste production leads us to a situation that requires serious concern.
Even if Melbourne waste management and its management is a global issue, there is considerable variability in approaches for treating wastes among different countries due to several factors. This is basically related to the different characteristics of wastes produced and also the volumes associated with it. This is further affected by environmental factors, inequality in energy consumption levels and green-house gas emissions. The sustainable strategies so employed reflects other influential factors like socio-economic conditions, standard of living, rural-urban composition, country’s GDP and technological means available for scientific waste handling.
A discrepancy has been observed in terms of waste production between developed and developing economies. According to a study led by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, solid waste production rates for low-income group countries were less than 100 kg/capita/year and for high-income countries, more than 800 kg/capita/year. Developed countries have been long considered as affluent societies due to relative lower populations and greater industrial progress as compared to the developing world. In the economy-resource nexus, they are associated with high consumption rates. Better economic conditions imply higher per capita income which inevitably leads to higher waste disposal. In case of developing nations the problem of waste management can be referred to the high population base these countries often characteristically possess and a further important impediment may exist in the form of technological lack in dealing with the myriad variety of wastes.
The variation in treating wastes is definitely not limited at the global level among developing and developed countries; rather the process can be zoomed into local levels revealing variability within a nation itself. The local factors, policies, local perceptions and sociological considerations, available infrastructure for implementation, all produce different sets of condition for dealing with wastes. However apart from such differences, every nation possesses long term strategies which bear similarity in the vision of sustainable waste management.